Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Valuation Tax Expense Of Accounting Studies? Answer: Introducation According to the latest annual report of Adslot Limited, there are three major items of equity for the company; they are Issued Capital, Reserves and Accumulates Losses. Issued capital is the equity shares that Adslot Limited used to raise capital. Rise in issued capital can be seen in 2017 from 2016 that is $ 137,949,047 in 2017 and $ 120,693,650 in 2016 (adslot.com 2018). Reserves refer to the extra amount of money shareholders pay in excess of the par value of the shares (Brigham and Houston 2012). There is a decrease in reserves for Adslot Limited in 2017 as compared to 2016; that is $389,929 in 2017 and $404,736 in 2016. Accumulated loss is the negative retained earnings due to the extra payment of dividends. The annual report of Adslot Limited states that Adslot Limited witnessed more accumulated losses in 2017 as compared to 2016; that is $(98,109,46) in 2017 and $(89,478,859) in 2016 (adslot.com 2018). Like other business expenses, Income Tax Expenses is considered as a major expenditure for businesses. However, in case companies have net loss before tax, they can obtain the advantage of tax benefits, as the companies do not provide tax on net loss. Adslot Limited has loss before income tax of $8,600,201 in 2017 and $8,116,346 in 2016. The income tax rate of the company for 2017 was 27.5% and the rate was 30% in 2016. In this tax rates, Adslot Limited had tax benefits of $2,365,055 in 2017 and $2,434,904 in 2016. However, it needs to be mentioned that the company has several tax reconciliation on the calculated tax expenses, Adslot Limited had final tax expenditures of $29,986 in the year 2017 and $22,139 in the year 2016 (adslot.com 2018). The earlier discussion shows that Adslot Limited should have a tax benefit of $ 2,365,055 in 2017 and $ 2,434,904 in 2016 at a tax rate of 27.5% and 30% in 2017 and 2016 respectively. However, the reported tax expenditure of the company is $29,986 in the year 2017 and $22,139 in the year 2016 (adslot.com 2018). Thus, it can be observed that there is a difference in tax expenditure and some specific factors are responsible for this as these items are adjusted after the tax period (Burman and Phaup 2012). The first factor is Other Non-Allowable Items and these items are required to be deducted from the income before income tax. Under this, $11,789 and $8,154 has been added with the tax benefit for 2017 and 2016 respectively. The next item is Share Based Expenses during the Year and these expenses are subject to tax deduction. Thus, $90,878 and $132,041 has been deducted for the year 2017 and 2016 respectively. The next item is Research and Development Tax Concession; and $1,710,848 and $1,545,105 has been deducted in 2017 and 2016 respectively. In addition, $667,198 in 2017 and $1,068,079 in 2016 has been added due tax losses in deferred tax assets; and $ 145,644 in 2017 and $296,336 in 2016 has been deducted for net foreign exchange differences (adslot.com 2018). Deferred tax asset is the situation when companies pay excess amount of taxes (Laux 2013). On the other hand, deferred tax liabilities arise when there is a difference between profit and tax carrying value (Harrington Smith and Trippeer 2012). In case of Adslot Limited, it can be seen that the company has reported about both deferred tax assets and liabilities in their financial statements. In 2017 and 2016, Adslot Limited had deferred tax liability of worth $36,370 and $39,617 respectively. Moreover, the company had $36,370 and $39,677 as deferred tax liabilities respectively (adslot.com 2018). The main reason for deferred tax asset in Adslot Limited is due to the temporary difference in the expected tax rate to be applied. Deferred tax liabilities arise due to not-recognition of assets due to temporary difference in applied tax rate. Current tax assets and income tax payable are two of the major components of the taxation of the business organizations and the same concept is applicable for the taxation treatment of Adslot Limited. From the latest annual report of Adslot Limited, it can be observed that the company has not reported anything about current tax assets and income tax payable in the financial statements of 2017 (Rego and Wilson 2012). In this context, it needs to be mentioned that there is a difference between income tax expenses and income tax payable. Income tax expenses refer to the amount of income tax needs to be paid for the current year. On the other hand, income tax payable may include the amount of income tax needs to be paid for the last year also. For this reason, difference can be seen in the amount of income tax payable and income tax expenses (Thomas and Zhang 2014). The analysis of the latest annual report of Adslot Limited shows that there is a difference between the tax expenditure in income statement and cash flow statements. As per income statement, the amount of tax expenses is $29,986 and $22,139 in 2017 and 2016 respectively. As per the cash flow statement, Adslot Limited does not have any income tax received or paid. However, in 2016, the company received $17,187 as income tax (adslot.com 2018). There is a specific reason for this difference. Income statement shows the tax expenditure of current year of the company. However, cash flow statement shows the increase and decrease in current assets and liabilities. For this reason, income tax in cash flow may include current tax assets, liabilities and tax payable. This aspect makes the difference (Higgins 2012). The above analysis shows that Adslot Limited does not have anything confusing regarding their tax treatment of business as the company uses to provide proper justification and clarification of all tax treatments in the notes of financial statements. The tax reconciliation statement of Adslot Limited is an interesting aspect as the company has mentioned about the factors affecting the tax expenses along with the amounts. One can get effective insight about the tax treatment by the companies by observing the taxation treatment of Adslot Limited. References Adslot.com. (2018).Annual Report 2017. [online] Available at: https://www.adslot.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/adslot-annual-report-2017.pdf [Accessed 17 Jan. 2018]. Brigham, E.F. and Houston, J.F., 2012.Fundamentals of financial management. Cengage Learning. Burman, L.E. and Phaup, M., 2012. Tax expenditures, the size and efficiency of government, and implications for budget reform.Tax Policy and the Economy,26(1), pp.93-124. Harrington, C., Smith, W. and Trippeer, D., 2012. Deferred tax assets and liabilities: tax benefits, obligations and corporate debt policy.Journal of Finance and Accountancy,11, p.1. Higgins, R.C., 2012.Analysis for financial management. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Laux, R.C., 2013. The association between deferred tax assets and liabilities and future tax payments.The Accounting Review,88(4), pp.1357-1383. Rego, S.O. and Wilson, R., 2012. Equity risk incentives and corporate tax aggressiveness.Journal of Accounting Research,50(3), pp.775-810. Thomas, J. and Zhang, F., 2014. Valuation of tax expense.Review of Accounting Studies,19(4), pp.1436-146
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Portrait Of A Companies Success Portrait of a Company's Success by Introduction One can hardly find a party without them, the Kelly products: Popcorn, chips, peanuts have been keeping the American Party flair going for more than 40 years. Kelly's is a brilliant Viennese company with a long traditional success story. The crunch-munch story began in Vienna during the post wartime, 1955. The US major Howard M. Kelly tried to find a way to stay in beautiful Vienna ? he met Herbert Rast. In 1955 nobody in Austria wanted to eat popcorn. And so the two of them showed the Austrians that eating popcorn in cinemas is a great experience. The two founded the first American popcorn company with the motto: ?If it doesn't work- it does not work?. This was said without having much business experience. They had no clue about facts and figures the only thing they knew that the price of popcorn in American cinemas was 10 cents. 10 Cents at that time was 2 shillings and that is the price they charged. The company expanded quickly and they soon saw that it is important to include potato chips. This was the start of a very funny way of American advertising that still continues today. There were 46 producers of popcorn, later there was 25 of them. And 10 years after that there was just Kelly's providing the market with the product. Not only did they have quality, they had the know-how to produce and distribute. In those days they drove to every wholesaler in small cars delivering the fresh product and collecting the outdated. They were always the best and remained till this day. The product line quickly grew, production needed more space and that is when Helmut Jordan entered the company. All the work paid off and the company needed a larger production infrastructure. The found the best suited place about 25 km south from Vienna in Fachstetten. There they rented a building 25 m long, and 70 m wide. It was pack ed with all the necessary departments: office space, warehouse, production facilities, packaging and loading docks for transporting. Very early on Balsen took over Kelly's but Kelly remained independent in Austrian business. Kelly took over other companies such as the biggest competitor Feldbacher with its well-known product such as sollettis and bretzels. In June 1997 Kelly moved into a new production and logistic facility, which was stationed in Vienna in the 22 districts. 400 million shillings were invested all the products were delivered much quicker and more efficiently from this new location. One can measure its success by the yearly delivered amount. Here in Austria more than 22 thousand 8 hundred tons of snacks are bought each year this equals to 3 kg of snacks per person. When one thinks of this in terms of packages that's more than 180 million packages that are sold each year of soletti and other Kelly products. This means that more than 400 thousand products from the Kelly family are purchased every day. 4703 trucks are necessary to transport a yearly production of Kelly's product. If one put the trucks end to end they would cover a distance from Vienna to Melk. To be able to produce so much a lot of raw materials are used. The raw materials are kept in a small and cool place because freshness is absolutely important. Kelly faithfully following strict rules and regulations of certain criteria deliver the best original quality. Every thing in this large hall is produced under the care and commitment of Manfred Furhacker. Based on out interview with Ing. Furhacker we can say that Kelly has 4 lines of production. The first line is popcorn the next three lines are there to produce peanut curls, zigeuner rings and other products. But let us now focus on popcorn. Kelly's high quality corn is delivered especially from the USA is it transferred almost automatically and pumped directly into the popcorn machines. It is then heated without any additional ingredients where it then pops and then lands on a large conveyer belt where it is then salted. Now nothing stands in the way of packaging it, transporting and eating it! Through and through the employees in
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Reedsy Helped Me Start My Own Indie Publishing Company Reedsy Helped Me Start My Own Indie Publishing Company Christina Enquist shares her experience assembling the team of professionals that helped launch her debut novel, The Immundus - and her very own independent publishing company, Odolf Mingan Publishing.I was on safari, traversing my way through the rugged terrain of social media, seeking the elusive and coveted book editor. Not just any editor would do. I knew I had to have an editor with experience in editing young adult and science fiction, preferably someone who had edited bestsellers and award-winning novels.I tried reaching out to editors on Twitter and got some bites, but I was concerned about handing my manuscript over to a person whose qualifications I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure of. It was then that I happened upon a Mark Dawson podcast where he talked all about Reedsy. I began to investigate Reedsy myself and was instantly hooked. Thus ended my safari, as I found a prize better than I imagined: an entire herd of talent.I knew that I had found my resource for top talent, one that cou ld support me in starting my indie publishing career. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about hiring full-time or even part-time employees. I could hire professionals per project/book by contracting them through Reedsy.I am gearing up to launch my debut young adult dystopian novel,Ã The Immundus. The story is set in the year 2828 in Domus, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s last remaining country. DomusÃ¢â¬â¢ population is dwindling as the result of a mysterious disease called allagine. When 16-year-old Nia is recruited by a research company pioneering a cure to allagine, she witnesses something she shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have. As she sets down a dangerous path that uncovers national secrets, Nia must decide not only what kind of person she wants to be, but how far sheÃ¢â¬â¢s willing to go to save humanity.In order to make The Immundus the best it could be, I connected with professionals at different stages of my bookÃ¢â¬â¢s development.EditingI contracted two editors to get my book ready for the pre sses. Katrina Diaz Arnold served as my developmental and line editor, while Parisa Zolfaghari worked as my copy editor and proofreader. Both of these women were wonderful to work with and provided exceptional feedback to help me shape my story and tighten the lines.For example, Katrina was instrumental in helping me determine where to end the book - not always a straightforward task when writing a trilogy. She also made me aware of areas where I needed more thought or dialogue so the reader could fully understand whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on - which is crucial in any novel with dense worldbuilding. "Working with a professional editor is crucial for any novel with dense worldbuilding." @cienquist Parisa added additional depth to my story: she not only provided copy edits to make sure my punctuation and grammar were appropriate, she also provided some of her own developmental recommendations - even adding a few more scenes to raise the stakes of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s central conflict. Since I started working with the professionals I found on Reedsy, I have learned so much about the publishing industry and its standards: from learning about widows and orphans thanks to my copy editor, to understanding bleeds and crops from my designer, my team helped me acquire the knowledge I needed to become an indie publisher.The Immundus is available for pre-order on Amazon!Please share your thoughts, experiences, or any questions for Christina Enquist in the comments below!
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Dances of the renaissance - Essay Example The dance music of the Renaissance was written for instruments such as the sackbut, lute, viol, pipe and the tabor. Some of the most popular ones are discussed below. An allemande literally means Ã¢â¬ËGermanÃ¢â¬â¢ and it was one of the most popular instrumental dance forms in Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite. The allemande originated in the Renaissance period as a duple meter dance of moderate tempo, derived from dances supposed to be favored in Germany at the time and was performed in 4/4 time. Originally, the allemande formed the first movement of the suite, before the courante. The basse danse literally means Ã¢â¬Ëlow danceÃ¢â¬â¢ and it was the most popular court dance in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Basse danse music is always in 6/4 and in performance, 3 or 4 instrumentalists would improvise the polyphony based on this tenor. Basse danse is slow and processional, and is played with a constant speed throughout. It begins with a reverence and so there is usually no need to play any introductory bars before beginning the music, although a drumbeat or two may help. The basse danse later led to the development of the pavane. A branle is a 16th century French dance style which moves mainly from side to side, and is performed by couples in either a line or a circle and was mainly performed by commoners. Branle music is often in 4/4, although can be found in 2/4 and even with variations in timing between the bars. Branles donÃ¢â¬â¢t start with a reverence, and so a few introductory bars of music are usually required to get the dancers moving. According to Arbeau, every ball began with the same four branles. The Double Branle has a simple form involving two phrases of two bars each. The Single Branle, however, consists of a phrase of two bars, followed by a phrase of one bar and appears in numerous places. Likewise the Gay Branle consists of two
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Chaplin and the Cinema - Essay Example He expressed his inner sentiments by changing his expressions of the face. This was a skill which was possessed by him and he was the most famous comedian of his time. But later he adopted the way of acting like others. The movie Ã¢â¬ËThe Great DictatorÃ¢â¬â¢ marked a great revolution in the entertainment sector. This was the first movie in which Charlie Chaplin used the medium of talking to convey his feelings and emotions. It marked the introduction of Charlie Chaplin as a Ã¢â¬ËtalkieÃ¢â¬â¢ in the film industry which marked a great importance and secondly it also made its political importance felt through out the world. This movie was released during the era of World War II and showed its criticism against the forces which were involved during the World War II. The Great Dictator was a movie which marked the entrance of Americans in the World War II. This movie is of a great historical significance. It disparages the strategies designed specially by the Nazis during the World War II. The strategies made by the Nazis were shown as racial in this movie and it disapproved the policies largely. The production of Ã¢â¬ËThe Great DictatorÃ¢â¬â¢ started in 1937 at which time the Nazis did not pose any kind of danger to the United States of America. This movie takes its story from Hitler and Nazism. If the movie is closely reviewed it can be said that it clearly criticizes the policies made by Hitler and Nazis. Charlie Chaplin plays the role of a barber who has a faith in the religion of Jews. He belongs to the country of Tomania. In the commencement of the movie the barber is shown as a patriot of the country who is fighting in the World War I. This barber helps to save the life of a Tomanian Soldier during the war. But after the war this barber suffers from the disease amnesia and is hospitalized. Similarly another role is also played by Charlie Chaplin in the movie which is of a Tomanian dictator. This
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Pleasantville Essay In the movie Pleasantville, a brother and sister from modern day became part of a black and white Ã¢â¬Ë50s television show called Pleasantville. This was done using a special remote given to the main character David, by a TV repairman. In the beginning David believed Pleasantville should remain the same. Pleasantville was his utopia; he thought everything was perfect. His sister Jenn was determined to change Pleasantville. Jenn thought people acted like losers, and wanted them to be Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ . David later realized things should change because people did not show their emotions in Pleasantville, and had no way to express them. When people in Pleasantville showed their emotions, they changed from black and white to color. By the end of the movie, everything was in color because of David. People had learned to show their emotions. The creator of this movie was trying to communicate the message that emotions make things more interesting. This statement is true for Pleasantville and writing. In Pleasantville people would change to color when they showed their emotions. Bill expressed his emotions through painting colorful pictures. David gained his color when he got angry and punched Whitey. Emotions are put into writing to add detail. At Lovers Lane people reading books became colored and the listeners remained black and white. If people incorporate emotions into their writing it will help get the readers attention and make the plot more interesting. This movie relates to our critical analysis essay. The idea of perception versus reality is conveyed throughout the movie. David thought Pleasantville was perfect when he watched it on television. When he became part of the show he found it had many flaws. The citizens of Pleasantville believed there was nothing outside of Pleasantville; in reality there was a lot. In reality, bad things can happen. When the tree caught on fire, the firefighters did not know how to deal with it because there had never been a fire in Pleasantville before. This movie also dealt with the idea of personal choice and the consequences of those choices. In the Ã¢â¬Ë90s, Jenn did poorly in school. She probably could not get into college. She worked hard in school while she was in Pleasantville. In Pleasantville, she had a chance to go to college. Personal choice can also be seen when many people chose to show their feelings and emotions. The consequence was they changed to color.