Monday, March 9, 2020
The 5 Ethical Considerations in Sociological Research Ethics are self-regulatory guidelines for making decisions and defining professions. By establishing ethical codes, professional organizations maintain the integrity of the profession, define the expected conduct of members, and protect the welfare of subjects and clients. Moreover, ethical codes give professionals direction when confronting ethical dilemmas or confusing situations. A case in point is a scientists decision whether to intentionally deceive subjects or inform them about the true risks or goals of a controversial but much-needed experiment. Many organizations, such as the American Sociological Association, establish ethical principles and guidelines. The vast majority of todays social scientists abide by their respective organizations ethical principles. 5 Ethical Considerations in Sociological Research The American Sociological Associations (ASAs) Code of Ethics sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists professional responsibilities and conduct. These principles and standards should be used as guidelines when examining everyday professional activities. They constitute normative statements for sociologists and provide guidance on issues that sociologists may encounter in their professional work. The ASAÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Ethics contains five general principles and explanations. Professional Competence Sociologists strive to maintain the highest levels of competence in their work; they recognize the limitations of their expertise; and they undertake only those tasks for which they are qualified by education, training, or experience. They recognize the need for ongoing education in order to remain professionally competent; and they utilize the appropriate scientific, professional, technical, and administrative resources needed to ensure competence in their professional activities. They consult with other professionals when necessary for the benefit of their students, research participants, and clients. Integrity Sociologists are honest, fair, and respectful of others in their professional activities- in research, teaching, practice, and service. Sociologists do not knowingly act in ways that jeopardize either their own or others professional welfare. Sociologists conduct their affairs in ways that inspire trust and confidence; they do not knowingly make statements that are false, misleading, or deceptive. Professional and Scientific Responsibility Sociologists adhere to the highest scientific and professional standards and accept responsibility for their work. Sociologists understand that they form a community and show respect for other sociologists even when they disagree on theoretical, methodological, or personal approaches to professional activities. Sociologists value the public trust in sociology and are concerned about their ethical behavior and that of other sociologists that might compromise that trust. While endeavoring always to be collegial, sociologists must never let the desire to be collegial outweigh their shared responsibility for ethical behavior. When appropriate, they consult with colleagues in order to prevent or avoid unethical conduct. Respect for PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights, Dignity, and Diversity Sociologists respect the rights, dignity, and worth of all people. They strive to eliminate bias in their professional activities, and they do not tolerate any forms of discrimination based on age; gender; race; ethnicity; national origin; religion; sexual orientation; disability; health conditions; or marital, domestic, or parental status. They are sensitive to cultural, individual, and role differences in serving, teaching, and studying groups of people with distinctive characteristics. In all of their work-related activities, sociologists acknowledge the rights of others to hold values, attitudes, and opinions that differ from their own. Social ResponsibilityÃ Sociologists are aware of their professional and scientific responsibility to the communities and societies in which they live and work. They apply and make public their knowledge in order to contribute to the public good. When undertaking research, they strive to advance the science of sociology and to serve the public good. References CliffsNotes.com. (2011). Ethics in Sociological Research. cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26845.html American Sociological Association. (2011). asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Child Behavior and Development - Essay Example He was able to distinguish between a Ã¢â¬Å"cookieÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"cakeÃ¢â¬ . The child had asked for a cookie and his brother gave him a cake instead which he refused and insisted he gets a cookie. The child displayed his language and communication ability by answering all the people around him. Kyle was rather a sweet child who got along better with older children and adults. He always wanted to be the center of attraction while he bossed and gave instructions to his older brother and sister. He was a rather friendly kid as he laughed and joked pulling at his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s coat and ran around the table as he sat on each one's lap. He seemed to be an egocentric kid as he was always trying to grab the attention of others. According to Erickson, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s psycho-social behavior can be judged by observing how well he interacts with people in his environment. He displayed an emotional attachment as he went in search of his grandfather and when he missed his mother he called out, Ã¢â¬Å"Mommy where are you?Ã¢â¬ I found Kyle to be a healthy kid who was very active and strong. He had excellent motor skills as he tried to hop, jump, twist and run around the whole place. He banged several times on the glass table and laughed louder as he banged harder. While sitting at the table he tried pushing it using both his feet. His brother assisted him to drink from a juice box, but he pulled it from him and began drinking it by himself. According to PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, a child uses his five senses when interacting with people and things in his environment. This is very true in KyleÃ¢â¬â¢s case as he used his senses to interpret and deal with things around him. The child was a keen observer while playing at the sand table. He watched all the others around him and even answered his teacher while she asked him a few questions. He was capable of recognizing which object to use for scooping up the sand.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Elements of genre - Essay Example history of The Religious Freedom Restoration Act in the US since 1995, pointing out all the flaws in the process involving its implementation and practice over time. The author also explains how discriminatory the bill is. Considering that discrimination is unconstitutional, most patriotic readers will be convinced about the unconstitutionality of the Act. The author should have also given the audience a positive side of the Act, instead of banking on the negatives only. This writing argues for The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, citing its role of balancing the interests of people, as well protecting the religious commitments of various people in the United States. The writing taps into the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s values and emotions through its emphasis on diversity. The author believes in diversity, hence justifies exemptions on the basis of religion. The author of this article persuades his audience by pointing out the influence this Act has employers, employees, insurance companies, non-profits, and government. Form this, a reader can evaluate how the Act promotes diversity basing on its influence on different groups of people and bodies. The author is also realistic in his evaluation of the Act. He acknowledges the fact that the Act has not received full support, as it faces opposition from different parties. He also recognizes that the Act is quite complex, though it remains relevant. In order to make this writing better, the author should have considered enhancing the simplicity and clarity of the article. This could have been for instance, through mentioning directly how the Act promotes peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s religious commitments. The author has presented his argument in a way that the reader has to demystify the relationship between the Act and its promotion of the religious commitments of different people in America. The major argument is that The Religious Freedom Restoration Act is bad, as it predisposes religious people to considerable financial dependency on the
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Milgram Obedience Review Essay Obedience is as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to. Some system of authority is a requirement of all communal living, and it is only the person dwelling in isolation who is not forced to respond, with defiance or submission, to the commands of others. For many people, obedience is a deeply ingrained behavior tendency, indeed a potent impulse overriding training in ethics, sympathy, and moral conduct. The dilemma inherent in submission to authority is ancient, as old as the story of Abraham, and the question of whether one should obey when commands conflict with conscience has been argued by Plato, dramatized in Antigone, and treated to philosophic analysis in almost every historical epoch. Conservative philosophers argue that the very fabric of society is threatened by disobedience, while humanists stress the primacy of the individual conscience. The legal and philosophic aspects of obedience are of enormous import, but they say very little about how most people behave in concrete situations. I set up a simple experiment at Yale University to test how much pain an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person simply because he was ordered to by an experimental scientist. Stark authority was pitted against the subjects strongest moral imperatives against hurting others, and, with the subjects ears ringing with the screams of the victims, authority won more often than not. The extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority constitutes the chief finding of the study and the fact most urgently demanding explanation. This is from perils of obedience by Stanley milgram. I enjoyed this article.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Dangerous Combination of the Media and the Weight-Loss Industry Ã Abstract: Excessive use of diet pills by American women stems from the idea that thinness is ideal. This ideal is unlikely to change in the near future, so the use of diet pills and other unhealthy fat diets is likely to increase. If women remain unaware of the health risks associated with the use and abuse of these unregulated drugs, rates of illness and even death are also likely to increase. In 1997, the use of diet pills directly caused seventeen deaths (Cohen). Medical professionals speculate that many other deaths are indirectly related to weight-loss drugs. FDA regulation of 'natural' substances such as ephedrine and caffeine would alleviate widespread use of diet pills. Without such regulation, advertisement of these drugs will continue to entice young women to unintentionally abuse their bodies and risk their health. Depictions of women in the media have expressed thinness as perfect for the past few decades, and the thin ideal is becoming more extreme. The 'waif model' is common in magazines, on television, and on the runway. Although these individuals are considered underweight by medical evaluation, their appearance has become desired by the average American woman. Oddly, even as Americans have aspired to weigh less, our average weight has increased by more than ten percent since the early 1970s (Berg 29). This weight gain probably results from the high fat content in popular, condensed foods. This inadvertent weight gain, coupled with increasing desire for thinness, has created an enormous market for 'fad diets.' One variety of these diets is the use of diet pills. Despite the dangers of weight-loss drugs, they were used by an approximate... ...s associated with the use and abuse of these unregulated drugs, rates of illness and even death are also likely to increase. In 1997, the use of diet pills directly caused seventeen deaths (Cohen). Medical professionals speculate that many other deaths are indirectly related to weight-loss drugs. FDA regulation of 'natural' substances such as ephedrine and caffeine would alleviate widespread use of diet pills. Without such regulation, advertisement of these drugs will continue to entice young women to unintentionally abuse their bodies and risk their health. Works Cited Berg, Frances M. Health Risks of Weight Loss. Hettinger, ND: Healthy Weight Journal, 1995. Cohen, Elizabeth. "FDA Wants Warning Labels for Some Herbal Supplements." CNN 3 June 1997. CNN Interactive. Online. Internet. 11 Oct. 2001. "Ephedra." TNP. Online. Internet. 17 Oct. 2001.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Liberalism is defined as a broad category of political philosophies that values the respect for equality and individual liberty to be one significant concept of the political goals. Liberalism puts emphasis on the need for equality of opportunities and individual rights. Within the domains that encompass the concept of liberalism there are streams of terms and thoughts that compete for the right usage of the term Ã¢â¬ËliberalÃ¢â¬â¢.In democracies along the Atlantic region such as New Zealand and Australia, liberalism is perceived as a precious achievement of an enduring nature and value. It is one important legacy among the European histories and philosophy which is commonly abbreviated as an enlightment. It has a wider resonce and scope that continues to inspire the political emancipation in regions across Europe and far beyond (http://freestudents. blogspot. com/2006/03/what-is-liberalism. tml). It is one achievement of its kind that is not influenced by the sudden rapture of t he common place charges of philosophical confusion, individualism, reductionist, cultural imperialism and the ranging political naivete and irrelevance. On the extreme contrast liberalism appears to be very ambiguous in matters of public and even to the academic realism so much in that it is always perceived as an intellectual orthodoxy or a hegemonic ideology.All the diverse streams that encapsulate the concept of liberalism are in a way united in one accord and supported by a structure of constitutional realism which however encompasses broad concepts such as the freedom of speech and thought, the rule of law, the limitations of the power of government and the support to individual rights and private property and lastly the challenge toward agitating for a transparent system of governance.Majority of all the supporters of liberalism and other political ideologist unanimously support the divergent forms of governments and especially the liberal democracy which agitates for fair and open elections in a country where all citizens hold equal similar rights towards the rule of law (http://www. polity. co. uk/keyconcepts/samples/kelly-chapter. pdf). According to various philosophers, liberalism comes in two broad forms. The first form is the classical liberalism which entirely emphasizes on the significance of individual liberty and contemporary welfare. This type of liberalism is focused on the significance of material equality.The second form of liberalism is referred to as the conservative liberalism which is more prominent and common in the American Economic outlook. To Europeans and Americans, conservative liberalism stands out to represent various things. That is, it is commonly associated with matters relating to states welfare and policies . Liberalism is rooted on the grounds of age enlightment a concept that repels the assumptions made on the foundational theories of government theories such the concepts of heredity status, the divine status of rights of kings and economic protectionisms which were laid down by religions.On the extreme construct liberalism defines itself as an independent entity that seeks for equal dignity and the value of individual worthiness. Thus liberalism is commonly perceived as an historic advocate of freedom. To much extend it has greatly influenced the rule of law and private property through agitating for the free exchange of ideas and goods (http://freestudents. blogspot. com/2006/03/what-is-liberalism. html).As the name stipulates liberalisms is best understood as the fundamental belief in a political ideal that permeates individuals to possess the freedom towards pursing their own goals in their very own unique ways in due respect without infringing on the equality and liberty of others. The basic concern is projected towards the preservation of human rights. That is rights are considered to be the most fundamental concepts and language through which liberalism can be spoken. The entire concepts abou t liberalism both circumlogate around the primacy of the human rights.According to Thomas Jefferson, human beings hold true in order to be self evident. However, man is created as been equal to his fellow man and by large he/she is endowed with innate capabilities which come as inalienable rights to life, pursuit of happiness and liberty (http://www. polity. co. uk/keyconcepts/samples/kelly-chapter. pdf). Therefore, in order to ensure that these rights are well secured the governments are instituted in the midst of men to derive their just powers by seeking consent from the governed.Liberalism transformed the prevailing doctrines of human rights by setting them upside down. For quit sometime man was believed that he lived for the sake of the state. That is, which ever capabilities he possessed they were gifts granted to him by the king manning the government. According to liberalism the opposite was held wrong in that man initially possessed the rights far much before the government came into being and however, it received sanctions from the people. Various movements have erupted as movements towards repelling the concepts of liberal influence.Majority of these movements affirm and reclaim holding to what they have held in the past as the traditional orthodoxy. Some claim that the political liberalism miss understands the nature and the demands of the political array. The egalitarianism behind this notion is profoundly an anti Ã¢â¬â political doctrine which aims at replacing the demands of politics. Another reaction emerges from the philosophical claims underpinning liberalism which claim that liberalism is based on false conceptions of neutrality by focusing on narrow and culturally specific prejudice which are generalized as universal values.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Introduction Crime prevalently commits around the globe either at the past time or even in this present and ongoing society. Crime is not commendable to commit in any society, however, we cannot rule out the possibility that, it is there as a complex issue and could be explained as a part of society life. So, what crime actually is? Crime delineates as an illegal act either against law, collective wellbeing, or even political wellbeing (Bradley Walters, 2011). It then overall deems as a kind of harmful behavior towards certain values or norms of the society it committed in. Becker (from labelling theory) argued that no action in itself crime or deviant, it depends upon who commits it, who sees it, and what action is taken about it (Becker, 1991). So it is to underline that crime is really a social creation, and does not have such reality of its own, historical relative and characterized by the constant changing (Henry, 2001; Bradley Walters, 2011). This is not the conclusion, as we continually seek to understand such claim that crime is a product of the society and always shifting over time and place. In this essay I will unpack three motives of why crime has been posited to be a social construction rather a reality in itself autonomous or neutral. Three different approaches will be proposed to justify crime as a social fabrication, which are; First Crime is a legal based fabrication which takes a form on the doctrinal argument by judges and bring existence to suchShow MoreRelatedCrime And Its Effect On Society Essay1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeginning of time crime has always been factor in humanity. In the bible, crime started from Adam and Eve the first man and women. From eating of the forbidden tree to current stage of time, crime has become a part of the human society. However, what is considered a crime and what is not is something that is still controversial. 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